Abstract/ summary
This study was conducted in different tehsils of district Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to investigate heavy metals concentrations in surface and ground water of (Alpurai, Besham, Puran, Chakisar, Shahpur, Martung and Makhozi) areas. To recognize the physiochemical parameters, for example, pH, EC, temperature and TDS in the water, the water samples were collected randomly from various locations in district Shangla, KP, Pakistan (Alpurai, Besham, Puran, Chakisar, Shahpur, Martung and Makhozi) water samples were analyzed for the concentrations of HMs (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn) by flame atomic absorption, Spectrophotometer (Varian FAAS-240). To study the health risk of HMs, health risk indexes (HRIs) concentration of HMs in adults and in children were found in order of Pb>Ni>Cd>Cr>Zn>Mn separately. Highest concentrations of mean HRIs were noted in Alpurai Pb (9.72E-02) while the lowest mean concentration was in Puran Mn (2.71E-02). Similarly in Puran and Alpurai Pb and Ni were higher than 1. Likewise, the mean CDI concentrations in district Shangla for adults and children was seen in order of Pb>Ni> Cd>Cr>Zn>Mn, individually. The high mean CDI concentration was found in Makhozi Pb (2.58E-02 mg/kg/day), although the least mean value was in Alpurai Cr (1.10E-03 mg/kg/day), correspondingly. The HRIs of HMs with the exception of Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr existed very low. In drinking water samples the concentration of heavy metals and the permissible limits sets by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency 2008 and World Health Organization 2008 were compared.
The key purpose of the study is to find out the concentration of HMs (Lead, Manganese, Zinc, Nickel, Chromium, and Cadmium) and certain physicochemical parameters (pH, TDS, EC, and temperature) within consuming of drinking water in the study area, and to identify related health risk to the local peoples, as such used of contaminated water.


University of Swat
Bachelors, Bachelors in Science, Environmental science‎
Introduction to Environmental science, Environmental biotechnology, water resource management, natural resource management, environmental ecology, pollution control technology, environmental monitoring, environmental policy, research methods in environmen
CGPA 3.3/4


Less than 1 Yearno suggestion


Expert Pashto
Intermediate Urdu
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